Throughout the Old and New Testament, various religious groups emerged within Jewish culture.
In Old Testament times, God established a group called the Nazarites, people who lived a unique lifestyle and reminded Israel to remain set apart for God. Nazarite practices continued into New Testament times.
As Jewish culture grew, so did disagreements about the proper way to interpret and apply the Text. By Jesus' day, four predominant religious philosophies had emerged: Essenes, Zealots, Pharisees, and Sadducces. With radically differing beliefs, these movements often clashed. But during his ministry, Jesus probably interacted with them all.